Conditions for Establishing a Company in Russia

Conditions for Establishing a Company in Russia

Russia, one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, has increasingly become a hub for foreign investment. With its vast natural resources, skilled workforce, and strategic location, business owners are eager to establish companies in the country. However, setting up a company in Russia comes with a set of stringent rules and conditions. In this article, we will explore the conditions for establishing a company in Russia and provide answers to some frequently asked questions.

1. Understanding the Legal Framework

The legal framework for setting up a company in Russia is laid out in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. According to the Civil Code, there are two types of companies in Russia – limited liability companies and joint-stock companies.

Limited Liability Companies

Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) are the most common type of company in Russia. An LLC requires at least one founder and can have a maximum of 50 shareholders.

Joint-Stock Companies

Joint-Stock Companies (JSCs) are companies whose capital is divided into shares. To set up a JSC in Russia, a minimum of five shareholders is needed. A JSC can either be an open JSC or a closed JSC. The difference between the two is that open JSCs have the right to distribute their shares publicly, while closed JSCs do not.

2. Registering Your Company

To register a company in Russia, there are a few steps that you need to follow:

Step 1: Choose a Business Name

Before you can register your company, you need to choose a business name. The business name should be unique and not previously registered with the tax authorities. It is also important to note that in Russia, the business name must reflect the type of activity the company will undertake.

Step 2: Obtain a Tax Identification Number (TIN)

To register your company in Russia, you need to obtain a Tax Identification Number (TIN). This can be done by submitting an application to the Federal Tax Service.

Step 3: Draft the Company Articles of Association

The Articles of Association is a legal document that outlines the rules and regulations governing the company. This document must be drafted in accordance with the Civil Code and registered with the tax authorities.

Step 4: Register with the Federal Tax Service

After obtaining a TIN and drafting the Articles of Association, the next step is to register the company with the Federal Tax Service. This can be done online or in person at the tax office.

3. Obtaining Permits and Licenses

In addition to registering the company, there are certain permits and licenses that need to be obtained before commencing business operations in Russia. The permits and licenses required will vary depending on the type of business and industry. Some of the common permits and licenses required in Russia include:

– Business license
– Tax registration
– Labor permit
– Sanitary and epidemiological certificate
– Fire safety certificate

4. Hiring Employees

To hire employees in Russia, you need to comply with the Labor Code of the Russian Federation. The minimum wage in Russia is set by the government and changes annually.

5. Paying Taxes

Businesses in Russia are subject to a range of taxes, including corporate income tax, value-added tax (VAT), and social security taxes. It is important to stay up-to-date on changes to the tax laws to ensure compliance.


1. Do I need a Russian partner to set up a company in Russia?

No, you do not need a Russian partner to set up a company in Russia. However, it is important to note that foreign companies may face some restrictions in certain industries, such as oil and gas.

2. How long does it take to register a company in Russia?

The time it takes to register a company in Russia varies depending on the type of company and the completeness of the documents submitted. On average, the process can take between four and six weeks.

3. What are the corporate tax rates in Russia?

The corporate tax rate in Russia is set at 20%.

4. Can a foreign company open a bank account in Russia?

Yes, foreign companies can open bank accounts in Russia. However, it may be more challenging to open an account than for a domestic company.

5. What are the benefits of setting up a company in Russia?

Setting up a company in Russia can offer a range of benefits, including access to a skilled workforce, vast natural resources, and a strategic location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Additionally, there are several tax incentives offered to new businesses to encourage investment in the country.


Setting up a company in Russia requires careful consideration of the legal framework, permits, and licenses required, employee hiring and tax compliance. By following the proper procedures and guidelines, foreign investors can establish thriving businesses in Russia and tap into its growing economy and vast market potential.