Geographical Features and Landscape of Latvia


Latvia is a small country in northern Europe, situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The country’s landscape is characterized by extensive forests, rolling hills, and numerous rivers and lakes, all of which have played significant roles in shaping the country’s identity and culture. The region has been inhabited for thousands of years, with a rich history dating back to the Viking Age. In this article, we will discuss the geographical features and landscape of Latvia, exploring the country’s natural beauty and unique landscapes.

Geographical Features of Latvia

1. Rivers and Lakes

Latvia boasts a multitude of rivers and lakes, many of which are interconnected through waterways and canals. The country is home to over 12,000 rivers, including the country’s longest river – the Daugava – which runs for 1,020 km from Russia to Latvia’s capital, Riga. The river is known for its impressive gorges and waterfalls, and it also plays a significant role in shaping Latvia’s economy by providing hydroelectric power.

Latvia also has over 3,000 lakes, many of which are located in the eastern part of the country. The largest lake is Lake Lubāns, covering an area of 80.7 square kilometers. These lakes are a popular destination for fishing and water sports but are also essential habitats for various birds and fish species.

2. Forests

Forests make up approximately half of Latvia’s land area. The country has a rich forest cover consisting of a diverse range of tree species, including pine, spruce, birch, oak, and aspen. The forests are also home to a variety of wildlife, such as elk, wild boar, lynx, and bears.

The forests are an essential feature of Latvia’s landscape and economy, providing timber for industries such as paper production and furniture manufacturing. They also play an essential role in preserving the country’s biodiversity and regulating the climate.

3. Coastal Regions

Latvia has a relatively short coastline that extends for approximately 500 km along the Baltic Sea. The coastal regions are characterized by sandy beaches, steep cliffs, and picturesque seascapes. The country’s most popular resort town, Jūrmala, is located on the coast just a short distance from the capital, Riga.

4. Hills and Plateaus

Latvia’s landscape is characterized by rolling hills and plateaus, which cover around 30% of the country’s land area. These hills and plateaus are predominantly located in the eastern part of the country and can reach heights of up to 312 meters above sea level. The largest hill range, the Vidzeme Upland, stretches across the northern part of the country and includes several peaks over 200 meters high.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is Latvia’s highest peak?
Latvia’s highest peak is the Gaiziņkalns, located in the eastern part of the country. It reaches a height of 312 meters above sea level.

2. What is the total area of Latvia?
The total area of Latvia is 64,589 square kilometers.

3. What is Latvia’s longest river?
Latvia’s longest river is the Daugava, which runs for 1,020 km from Russia to Latvia’s capital, Riga.

4. What is the climate of Latvia?
Latvia has a maritime climate with moderately cold winters and cool summers. The average temperature in January is -5°C, and in July, it is around 17°C.

5. What is the population of Latvia?
The population of Latvia is approximately 1.9 million people.

6. Are there any national parks in Latvia?
Yes, Latvia has four national parks – Gauja National Park, Kemeri National Park, Slītere National Park, and Razna National Park.

7. How many lakes are there in Latvia?
There are over 3,000 lakes in Latvia.


Latvia’s landscape is diverse and rich, offering a unique combination of forests, rivers, lakes, and coastal regions. The country’s rolling hills and plateaus, as well as its vast forests, create a breathtaking natural environment that is home to an abundance of wildlife and plant species. The region’s history and culture have been shaped by its geographical features, with the country’s rivers and forests being essential to its economic and cultural development. Latvia’s natural beauty is truly captivating and is a must-visit destination for anyone seeking to explore the natural wonders of northern Europe.