Geographical Features of Mexico: An Overview

Geographical Features of Mexico: An Overview

Mexico, a country located in the southern part of North America, is a land of immense natural beauty and geographical diversity. From its rugged mountains and high plateaus to its tropical forests and arid deserts, there is much to explore and discover in this amazing nation. In this article, we will provide an overview of the various geographical features of Mexico, including its topography, climate, and biodiversity.


Mexico is home to a diverse range of topographical features, ranging from towering mountains and rugged plateaus to rolling hills and vast plains. The country is divided into three main regions: the Sierra Madre Occidental, the Sierra Madre Oriental, and the Mexican Plateau.

The Sierra Madre Occidental is a mountain range that runs along the western side of Mexico, from the Arizona border in the north to the state of Nayarit in the south. It is made up of several sub-ranges, including the Sierra Madre del Sur, the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, and the Sierra Madre Occidental proper. The range is known for its high peaks, deep canyons, and rugged landscapes, which include the iconic Copper Canyon.

The Sierra Madre Oriental runs along the eastern side of Mexico, from the state of Coahuila in the north to the state of Veracruz in the south. It is home to a series of plateaus and mountains, including the Tamaulipan mezquital, the Coahuiltecan region, and the Huastec region.

The Mexican Plateau, also known as the Mesa Central, is a large region of elevated terrain that covers much of central and southern Mexico. It is home to a number of major cities, including the capital Mexico City, and is known for its vast grasslands, sprawling deserts, and towering volcanoes.


Mexico’s climate is largely determined by its topography and its proximity to the equator. The country is home to a variety of climate zones, ranging from tropical rainforests and deserts to high-altitude mountain regions.

The northern regions of Mexico are typically arid and prone to drought, with hot summers and cool winters. The central regions of Mexico, including Mexico City, have a temperate climate, with mild temperatures year-round. The southern regions of Mexico, including the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca, have a tropical climate, with high humidity and heavy rainfall.


Mexico is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world, with a rich variety of plant and animal life. The country is home to over 200,000 species of plants and animals, many of which are found nowhere else on Earth.

Mexico’s ecosystems include tropical rainforests, dry deserts, temperate grasslands, and high-altitude mountain regions. The country is particularly known for its diversity of reptiles and amphibians, including the iconic Mexican axolotl, as well as its rich birdlife and marine fauna.


1. What is the highest point in Mexico?

The highest point in Mexico is Pico de Orizaba, a dormant volcano that rises to an elevation of 18,491 feet (5,636 meters) above sea level.

2. What are some of the most famous natural landmarks in Mexico?

Mexico is home to a number of iconic natural landmarks, including the Copper Canyon, the Cenotes of Yucatan, and the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve.

3. What is the climate like in Cancun?

Cancun is located in the Yucatan Peninsula, which has a tropical climate with high humidity and heavy rainfall. The region is prone to hurricanes and tropical storms during the summer months.

4. What is the significance of Mexico’s biodiversity?

Mexico’s biodiversity is important not only for its ecological value but also for its cultural significance. The country’s plant and animal life have been integral to indigenous cultures for thousands of years, and many of Mexico’s traditional medicines and foods are still derived from local plants and animals.

5. Is Mexico’s geography prone to natural disasters?

Mexico’s topography and location on the Pacific Ring of Fire make it prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and hurricanes. However, the country has implemented a number of measures to mitigate the impact of these events, including early warning systems and disaster relief programs.


Mexico’s rich diversity of topographical features, climate zones, and biodiversity make it a fascinating and complex country to explore. Whether you are interested in exploring the rugged mountains and deep canyons of the Sierra Madre Occidental, the vast grasslands of the Mexican Plateau, or the tropical rainforests of Chiapas, there is something for everyone in this amazing nation.