Politics in Mexico: Structure and Major Influences

Politics in Mexico: Structure and Major Influences

Mexico is a democratic republic, with a federal system of government and a separation of powers. The country’s political structure is heavily influenced by historical events, cultural traditions, and economic factors. Understanding the complexity of Mexican politics requires a thorough analysis of its structure and major influences.

Government Structure

Mexico’s government structure is divided into three branches: the executive, legislative, and judiciary. The executive branch is headed by the president, who serves as the head of state and government. The president is elected to a six-year term, with no possibility of re-election. The president’s main duty is to enforce the law and manage the country’s foreign and domestic policies. The president also has the power to veto legislation and appoint top government officials.

The legislative branch of the Mexican government is bicameral, consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 500 members, while the Senate is composed of 128 members. Members of both chambers are elected to three-year terms. The legislative branch is responsible for creating and passing legislation, as well as approving the federal budget.

The judiciary branch of the Mexican government is composed of federal and state courts. The judiciary is responsible for upholding the law and interpreting the constitution. The judiciary is headed by the Supreme Court, which is composed of 11 justices appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.

Major Influences

Mexico’s political structure and decision-making are heavily influenced by a number of factors, including its history, culture, and the role of political parties.


Mexico’s history has played a key role in shaping the country’s political structure. The country was colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century, and gained independence in 1821. Its political system has since undergone numerous changes, including the Mexican Revolution in the early 20th century, which saw the establishment of the current political structure. The Mexican Revolution was a social and political upheaval that resulted in the overthrow of the government and the establishment of a new constitution, which created a federal system of government.


Mexico’s culture is vibrant and diverse, with a rich history of indigenous cultures and traditions. The country’s political system reflects this cultural diversity, with various political parties representing different regions and groups. Mexican culture also values solidarity, which has paved the way for a strong sense of community and collective action.

Political Parties

Political parties play a crucial role in shaping Mexican politics. The two major political parties in Mexico are the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the National Action Party (PAN). The PRI dominated Mexican politics from 1929 to 2000, with control over all aspects of government and society. The PAN emerged in the 1980s as a conservative, pro-business alternative to the PRI. In recent years, a third major political party has emerged, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), which is a left-leaning party that seeks to promote democracy and social justice.


What is the current political situation in Mexico?

Currently, the president of Mexico is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who has been in office since December 2018. His government has pursued policies focused on reducing corruption, promoting economic growth, and addressing inequality. He has also focused on improving relations with the United States, particularly regarding issues related to immigration and trade.

What are the major challenges facing Mexican politics?

Mexican politics faces a number of challenges, including corruption, crime, and economic inequality. Corruption has been a persistent problem in Mexican politics, with many politicians accused of taking bribes or engaging in other forms of graft. The country also faces high levels of violence and crime, particularly in areas with significant drug trafficking activity. Economic inequality is also a major challenge, with many Mexicans living in poverty or struggling to access basic services like healthcare and education.

What is the role of civil society in Mexican politics?

Civil society plays an important role in shaping Mexican politics. Civil society organizations, including advocacy groups, labor unions, and non-governmental organizations, represent a wide range of interests and perspectives and work to influence public policy. Civil society has been instrumental in promoting democracy and human rights in Mexico, and has played an important role in pushing for reforms to address corruption and inequality.

Does Mexico have free and fair elections?

Mexico has a history of contested and fraudulent elections, particularly during the decades of PRI rule. In recent years, however, Mexico has made significant strides in improving electoral transparency and accountability. The country’s electoral system includes an independent electoral body, the National Electoral Institute (INE), which oversees the conduct of elections and ensures that they are free and fair. Despite these improvements, some critics argue that Mexico still faces challenges in ensuring that its elections are fully transparent and accountable.